- 1 rectal cancer
- 2 treatment of rectal cancer
- 3 Symptoms of rectal cancer
- 4 rectal cancer risk factors
- 5 References
Rectum is located (in English: Rectum) in the last part of the colon (in English: Colon) and connects to its end with the anus, occurs rectal cancer (in English: Rectal cancer) when they start the constituent cells of the straight divide and grow randomly, and often be the real reason behind its occurrence unknown, rectal cancer develops usually over many years, and despite the similarity of rectal cancer in many traits with colon (cancer English: colon cancer), but different treatment, due to the lack of space where there is straight and because of its proximity to a number of Members inside the pelvis, making the treatment of rectal cancer is more complex, and perhaps this is what explained the low survival rate of colorectal cancer in the past, but the medical development that has occurred over the past thirty years to raise the proportion of colorectal cancer treatment contributed significantly.  
Treatment of rectal cancer
Treatment of colorectal cancer depends on the stage of progression of the disease, where progress rectal cancer is divided into five basic stages, and treatment is as follows: 
- Phase Zero: be cancer at this stage within the inner lining of the straight only, and can eliminate the cancer by removing the cancer cells within a surgical operation called Operation polypectomy (in English: Polypectomy), or by removal of topical (English: Local excision), or eradication through the anus (in English: Transanal resection).
- The first stage: expanding cancer at this stage, to the deep tissues of the straight without spreading outside, and are being treated for rectal cancer at this stage through the eradication of all polyps, and in the absence of cancer spread to the surrounding areas Basulailh this treatment enough to get rid of the cancer, and if the presence of cancerous cells scattered on the outskirts of polyps can be patient to undergo another eradication needs, and if the cancer was the size of a small can be done to eradication through micro-laparoscopic surgery through the anus and know this surgery b Transanal endoscopic microsurgery, without having to do surgical work through the abdomen, some cases may require the eradication of the rectum (in English: Proctectomy) with re-link the colon with the anus directly through a process known as Colo-anal anastomosis, and in some other cases can be done resection abdominal perineal (in English: Abdominoperineal resection), and supports identification surgery type place on cancer in the rectum. It should be noted that the patient often is not any type of need of treatment after undergoing surgical operations already mentioned, with the exception of cases in which advanced the cancer after surgery, where recourse in such cases to radiotherapy (in English: Radiation therapy) and chemotherapy (in English : Chemotherapy).
- Second stage: expanding cancer at this stage to the wall of the rectum, and can extend to the surrounding straight tissue without reaching the lymph nodes (in English: Lymph nodes), and the treatment of cancer at this stage using chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or surgery, the drugs used in chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (in English: 5-FU) and medicine Kabsitapan (in English: Capecitabine).
- Third stage: the spread of cancer runs at this stage to adjacent lymph nodes of the straight, and the treatment of cancer at this stage in one of the therapeutic methods used in the treatment of the second stage.
- Stage IV cancer spreads at this stage to reach other body organs such as the liver, lungs, and treatment depends at this stage on the extent of the spread of cancer in the body, if the spread of simple and limited cancer to the presence of small tumors can be disposed of, the possible treatment options are chemotherapy, radiology, surgery, and in cases where the spread of cancer is confined to the liver cancer was spread widely within the body can be added directed therapy (in English can be used to treat Alkamiaia using direct injection method through the hepatic artery (in English: hepatic artery infusion), and in the case of: Targeted therapy) to chemotherapy, and in difficult cases can be sufficient to control the symptoms associated with cancer and avoid complications in the long term, such as bleeding and bowel obstruction.
Symptoms of rectal cancer
Accompanied by the emergence of incidence of rectal cancer, a number of different symptoms, including the following:  
- Out of blood with stool.
- Change in the activity of the intestine, and is the suffering of the patient from diarrhea or constipation, or a feeling of not emptying the bowel completely, or change the shape of the stool.
- Out of mucus material with feces.
- The feeling of swelling, pain, fullness, and abdominal cramps.
- The feeling of pain during bowel movement.
- Anemia caused by iron deficiency (in English: Iron deficiency anemia)
- Changes in appetite and weight loss are unjustified.
- Feeling tired and fatigue.
Rectal cancer risk factors
There are some factors that increase the risk of cancer rectum, including the following: 
- Progress in age, where the increased chance of developing colorectal cancer in people who are over the age of fifty.
- Prior injury Balslail or rectum and colon cancers.
- Incidence of one of inflammatory bowel (English diseases: Inflammatory bowel disease), such as ulcerative colitis (in English: Ulcerative colitis), Crohn's disease (in English: Crohn's disease).
- The presence of a family history of colon cancer or rectum.
- The person carrying the genes of some genetic diseases, such as polyps oncogene glandular disease Colon family (in English: Familial Adenomatous Polyposis).
- Eating habits, with high chance of developing colorectal cancer in people who are lacking in their diets for vegetables, concentrated red meat.
- Not to practice sports activities.
- Suffering from irregular sugar levels in the incidence of type II diabetes disease (in English: Type 2 diabetes).
- Drinking alcohol.
- Undergo radiotherapy in the previous cases of cancer.
- ^ أ ب ت "Rectal cancer", www.mayoclinic.org,4-1-2018، Retrieved 31-3-2018. Edited.
- ↑ Charles Patrick Davis, "Rectal Cancer"، www.emedicinehealth.com, Retrieved 31-3-2018. Edited.
- ↑ "Treatment of Rectal Cancer, by Stage", www.cancer.org, Retrieved 31-3-2018. Edited.
- ↑ "Rectal Cancer Treatment ", www.cancer.gov,16-2-2018، Retrieved 31-3-2018. Edited.
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