- 1 Caliphs
- 2 of the Umayyad Caliphate
- 3 Abbasid Caliphate
- 4 Ottoman Caliphate
- 5 References
Muslims gathered in Saqifah to swear allegiance to Abu Bakr and chosen successor them after the death of the Prophet, has been an obstacle Omar bin al-Khattab to assume this responsibility after his death in the thirteenth year of migration, Abu Bakr was afraid that runs sedition among Muslims after him, Fhd to senior Muslim consultation of supporters, and immigrants in the delivery of succession to the age, which was the first of the foundations of the house of Muslim money. 
The Othman bin Affan third caliph, who walked Quraish Wisely, and suppleness edition, has rule for six years, and then killed in thirty-five immigration in the events of sedition, which continued during the reign of Caliph fourth Ali ibn Abi Talib, where he saw his sedition Kharijites that spent by before his death. 
Over the Umayyad dynasty, many caliphs Kalkhalifh Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, who extended his reign (41-60) e, Muslims have hit the city of Medina in his famine was summoned for the disbursement of the amounts found in the house of Muslim money even carried out, was the Crown Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan judging from Egypt (65-86) e, was succeeded in power and his son Walid, who continued his reign (86-96) e, which is the first to establish a private hospital Palmjdhuman in 88 AH in Damascus. 
Took over after the succession of Omar bin Abdul Aziz (99-101) e, has made Muslims a state of satisfaction, prosperity, and social solidarity, help the poor, and a pair of young people, and Agathe Muslim prisoners, and took Hisham bin Abdul Malik rule from (105-125) e, social solidarity and expenses represented in the custody of a specific item of public expenditure items in the state. 
Abbasid era extended to almost five centuries and a quarter century since the year (132-656) e, where she was the Abbasid state in the late-to weakness, and dispersion, which led to the division of different states; Where he led the expansion of the scope of the state, and well-being lived by her children, the Islamic conquests and stopped to busy people about military life and military life. 
The successors of the Ottoman Empire descended from the larger family of Al-Othman, a family on the Islamic throughout history, has been a strong and impregnable state, and freed since its inception until the fall of the support of the power of Islam and faith; Increased its strength from the Islamic state, and the Ottomans remained on their situation that hundreds of years until the Western countries managed colony of them at the end of the eighteenth century and outnumbered them from the intellectual aspects, industrial and agricultural. 
- ^ A b agent Mr. Mohammed (2002), a historical tour of the era of the Caliphs (fifth edition), Jeddah: House Society for Publishing and Distribution, page 14-71-80-81-92-317-469-599-607. Adapted.
- ^ A b willing Sergani (08.02.2017), "the manifestations of solidarity in the Umayyad Caliphate", www.islamstory.com, briefed him on 10.10.2018. Adapted.
- ↑ Mahmoud Shaker (1991), a series of history of the Abbasid Islamic-State (fifth edition), Beirut: Islamic office, page 7, the first part. Adapted.
- ↑ Suleiman Bin Saleh Al-Kharashi (1420), how the state fell Ottoman (first edition), Saudi Arabia: Dar Al-Qasim Publishing and Distribution, page 11-12-13. Adapted.
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