- 1 Vitamin B 12
- 2 normal range of vitamin B-12
- 3 vitamin B12 deficiency
- 4 increased levels of vitamin B-12
- 5 sources of vitamin B-12
- 6 supplements of vitamin B-12
- 7 Warning use of vitamin B 12
- 8 References
Known as vitamin B-12 in several other names, including cobalamin (in English: Cobalamin), which is one of the essential vitamins needed by the body, but it does not have the capacity to produce, it is available in animal products, or added to some types of food, as it is available as a dietary supplement, and contributes this vitamin in cell function and nerve tissue, and the manufacture of DNA (in English: DNA), in addition to the formation of red blood cells, it also helps to improve memory, and reduce the risk of heart disease, and promote energy in the body,   is Vitamin b 12 of soluble vitamins in the water, which the body stores it in the liver for years. 
To read more about the benefits of vitamin B-12, you can refer to an article the benefits of vitamin b12
The normal range of vitamin B-12
Normal range of vitamin B12 in the blood between 190 to 950 picograms per milliliter, indicate rate ranging from 200 to 300 picograms per milliliter to that within the minimum limits of natural values, but when it declined from 200 picograms per milliliter, Vtad this low ratio, further tests your doctor may be asked to confirm these results. It is worth mentioning that the symptoms of lack of folate are similar to the symptoms associated with a decline in the proportion of vitamin B-12, so the doctor conduct may recommend screening for the proportion of folic acid,  The following table shows the recommended daily amount of vitamin B-12 for all age groups: 
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Lack of vitamin may occur 12 as a result of not eating enough of it, so people who do not consume sufficient amounts of sources -kalnbatien- may suffer from a lack of it, these people always advised to take supplements or foods fortified with vitamin B12, this deficiency can also occur if the body's inability to absorb enough of it, and lead this deficiency to anemia megaloblastic anemia (English: Megaloblastic anemia), and damage to the white material in each of the spinal cord and brain, in addition to the incidence of peripheral neuropathy (in English: peripheral neuropathy),   There are several symptoms of infection may appear when a lack of vitamin B12, which is as follows: 
- Diarrhea, or constipation.
- Fatigue, lack of energy, feeling dizzy when standing up, or when you make any effort.
- Bleeding gums, swelling of the tongue, and redness.
- Pale skin color.
- The feeling of shortness of breath.
- Feeling Palanfalah.
- Incidence of damage to the nerves at the low rate of vitamin B-12 for a long time, and accompanied by some of several symptoms, including: confusion, dementia, difficulty concentrating, loss of balance, psychosis, or loss of contact with the real world, hallucinations, numbness, and Okhozhma.
For more information about the lack of vitamin B-12 you can refer to an article What are the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency
Increased levels of vitamin B-12
Can be prepared to increase vitamin B12 in the body high by an indication of the existence of a problem, so although taken in large quantities does not cause any damage, so the upper limit was not put to eat,  It is noteworthy that the surplus of vitamin B-12 poses through urine , because it needs the body stores only, and there are some effects that indicate a high proportion of vitamin B12 in the body, including: dizziness, headache, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting. 
Sources of vitamin B-12
Vitamin B-12 is available in many natural sources, most notably mentions as follows:  
- Shellfish: The oysters one of the best sources of natural vitamin B-12, in addition to contain high levels of proteins, low-fat ratios, as is iron-rich foods and other B vitamins, and can be eaten cooked steamed or raw, and provide 100 grams of it 98.9 micrograms of Vitamin b-12, or equivalent to 4120% of the daily quantity.
- Liver cows: Although the taste is granulated for the liver of cattle, but it is one of the foods rich in vitamin B-12, in addition to iron, protein, vitamin A, but can not rely on it alone as a source of vitamin B-12, so as to contain a large proportion of cholesterol, and contain 100 grams of liver 85.7 micrograms of vitamin b-12, or equivalent to 3571% of the daily quantity.
- Fortified breakfast cereals: breakfast cereals are a rich source of vitamin B 12 people vegans, providing 100 grams of which 21 micrograms, which is equivalent to 875%.
- Fish is a salmon of good sources of vitamin B-12, providing approximately 85 grams of it 4.8 micrograms of this vitamin, plus it contains high levels of omega-3 essential to reduce inflammation, cholesterol, and blood pressure in the body, and thus reduce the risk of disease heart, stroke, and containing 100 grams of mackerel on 19 micrograms of vitamin b-12, or the equivalent of 792% of the daily quantity.
- Milk and yogurt: milk contains good amounts of calcium, vitamin D, as well as it contains vitamin B-12, with 100 mL provides him 0.5 micrograms of vitamin B-12, or the equivalent of 22% of the daily quantity, in addition to other derivatives of milk or yogurt, it contains yogurt on probiotics, as well as it contains vitamins and minerals, and contain one cup of it to 1.1 micrograms of vitamin b-12.
- Eggs: Although not contain eggs on high levels of vitamin B12 such as meat, fish, but it is a good source of this vitamin, plus it contains some proteins, and contain large egg per 0.6 micrograms of vitamin B-12, or the equivalent of 23 % of the daily quantity.
- Chicken breast: chicken breasts on a small amount of vitamin B-12, providing approximately 85 grams of it 0.3 micrograms of this vitamin, in addition to contain vitamin B-3, or what is known as niacin, which contributes to lower cholesterol levels in the blood contains.
- Plant sources: It is known that the food plant does not contain vitamin B12 naturally, but some supported by this vitamin, which can be for people who do not eat animal products as eggs, meat, and dairy that Esthkouha, such as: rice, meat substitutes, milk vegetarian source , food yeast, and panels of energy (in English: energy bars), and it should be noted the need for diversification in subsidized sources of vitamin b-12, so as to avoid injury Bnqs, can also add probiotics food system that contributes to enhance the absorption of this vitamin.
Supplements of vitamin B-12
Can doctors recommend many people to take supplements of vitamin B12 food, which are available in the form of pills, or spray for the nose, and can for people who suffer from a significant decrease in the level of vitamin, or in cases of this vitamin deficiency that does not respond to these dietary supplements to raise the level of vitamin 12, resorting to the consumption of vitamin B12 by injection, as can people with anemia due to a lack of vitamin B12 consumption supplements, but you should consult your doctor to treat this problem, it is worth mentioning that it is possible that consumption of supplements for life, and there are many people who suffer from problems in the absorption of vitamin B12 from sources of food, such as: the elderly, people suffering from gastrointestinal disorders, such as loss of the stomach (acid in English: Achlorhydria), and anemic malignant, in addition to people who eat certain types of drugs, such as medications anti-acidity, and some diabetes medicines, as people can vegetarians eat these supplements, due to the lack of consumption of meat in their diet, specifically during pregnancy and lactation.   
Warning the use of vitamin B 12
The vitamin B12 is often safe for most people, when taken orally, or Khaknh vein directly, as it is safe and high dose, but it must be pointed out that it is important not to take Mkmlath only after consulting a doctor, there are some cases, or the circumstances that must caution when the consumption of vitamin b 12, and among them the following: 
- Pregnancy and lactation: The consumption of women pregnant and breastfeeding vitamin B12 is often safe when consumed in the recommended amounts, and it should be noted the need for these quantities are not exceeded, as there is no information confirming the extent of consumption safety in larger quantities.
- After a special surgical stent put: you should avoid the use of vitamin B-12, along with vitamin B6 and folate, when developing coronary stent (in English: Coronary stent), as it may increase the risk of blood vessels narrowing.
- Sensitivity to cobalt: Owalkobalamin, it should not consumption of vitamin B-12 when the incidence of these allergies.
- Disease Leber: (English: Leber's disease), a genetic disease that affects the eyes, as you should avoid consumption of vitamin B-12 when the incidence of this disease, as it can cause damage to the optic nerve, which can lead to blindness.
- Anemia megaloblastic anemia can be used vitamin B 12 to alleviate poverty megaloblastic anemia, but it is not recommended to take vitamin B 12 without consulting a specialist doctor, as it may cause serious adverse effects, and in addition it is possible to eat vitamin B 12 to reveal symptoms real polycythemia disease (in English: polycythemia vera), of increasing the manufacture of all blood cells.
- Drug interactions: may reduce the intake of chloramphenicol (in English: Chloramphenicol) of the formation of new blood cells, so eating for long periods can reduce the effect of vitamin B 12 in the manufacture of new blood cells, but it is worth mentioning that this medicine for short periods no longer a problem for most people .
- ↑ Kaitlyn Berkheiser (14-6-2018), "9 Health Benefits of Vitamin B12, Based on Science"، www.healthline.com, Retrieved 22-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ WILLIAM SHIEL JR, "Medical Definition of Cobalamin"، www.medicinenet.com, Retrieved 22-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "Vitamin B12", medlineplus.gov, Retrieved 22-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "What’s a Vitamin B12 Test?", www.webmd.com, Retrieved 23-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "Vitamin B12", www.ods.od.nih.gov, Retrieved 28-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Larry Johnson (8-2019), "Vitamin B12 Deficiency"، www.msdmanuals.com, Retrieved 23-12-2019. Edited.
- ^ أ ب "Vitamin B12: What to Know", www.webmd.com, Retrieved 18-5-2020. Edited.
- ↑ "Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia", www.medlineplus.gov, Retrieved 23-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Jayne Leonard (27-7-2018), "What is the purpose of a vitamin B-12 level test?"، www.medicalnewstoday.com, Retrieved 28-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "Vitamin B-12", www.mayoclinic.org,17-10-2017، Retrieved 28-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Annette McDermott (29-8-2017), "Foods That Are Rich in Vitamin B-12 for Any Diet"، www.healthline.com, Retrieved 24-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Daisy Whitbread (18-11-2019), "Top 10 Foods Highest in Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)"، www.myfooddata.com, Retrieved 28-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Jennifer Robinson (22-12-2018), "What Is Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia?"، www.webmd.com, Retrieved 28-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ Adam Felman (28-11-2017) "Everything you need to know about vitamin B-12"، www.medicalnewstoday.com, Retrieved 28-12-2019. Edited.
- ↑ "VITAMIN B12", www.rxlist.com, Retrieved 24-12-2019. Edited.
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